Natural Plant Extracts In Formosan Subterranean Termite Control

Trapped a mosquito - I decided to taunt him with a messagePlants even have developed methods to discourage the multitude of bugs that need to eat them. Plants maintain bugs at bay through the use of bodily obstructions, comparable to powerful leaves, spines and hairs, and chemical warfare. Chemicals known as important oils are believed to have advanced in crops primarily as a protection towards bugs. Touch the leaves of crops like rosemary or mint, and you’ll odor the important oils designed by nature. Humans have taken benefit of those aromatic oils and used them in lots of merchandise, together with laundry and dish detergents, toothpastes, perfumes, air fresheners, drinks, cooking oils and even mosquito repellents.

De Havilland Mosquito, work in progressIn the event of pesticides, pure merchandise have an enormous benefit over artificial chemical substances as a result of they typically are usually thought to be secure (GRAS) for people by the Environmental Protection Agency. Chemical firms can spend greater than $100 million within the growth and registration of an insecticide, whereas a chemical on the GRAS record can value much less to supply and be placed on a quick observe to registration.

Vetiver grass and termites
Vetiver grass comprises a pure repellent to the Formosan subterranean termite. Vetiver grass is a kind of bunch grass associated to sugarcane and lemon grass. Because of its large and fast-growing root system, it’s identified world wide for its skill to scale back erosion. It is native to India and has been grown in Louisiana for about 200 years. The fast-growing roots comprise important oils utilized in citrus sodas, soaps and perfumes. Early Louisianians place the dried roots in closets and armoires for its pleasing perfume and to repel moths.

In the late 1990s, a Louisiana entrepreneur, Don Heumann, and his spouse, Judy, introduced vetiver crops to the eye of LSU AgCenter researchers, who discovered {that a} main substance – vetivone – was well-known to be the most important insect-repelling chemical in vetiver grass extracts. This initiated an investigation into comparable chemical substances which may have an effect on termites. One such chemical was discovered – nootkatone – which grew to become a lead compound in termite management analysis. Scientists examined the roots and located them to comprise different repellent and poisonous compounds efficient towards Formosan termites within the laboratory.

The AgCenter scientists additionally have been capable of extract and establish from the roots a number of different elements particularly energetic within the repelling and killing of termites. Tests are beneath technique to decide if the plant can be utilized as a pure repellent towards termite invasions into properties by planting them as a hedge. Additionally, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is now contemplating using vetiver grass alongside levee methods in New Orleans to scale back erosion throughout hurricanes. This may additionally have an effect on the termite infestations identified to be at excessive ranges on a few of the levees.

Several AgCenter patents from this work have been licensed for growth into industrial pesticides.

Sesame seeds and ants
Sesame seeds have lengthy been used as an ant repellent in kitchens in Egypt. Sesame oil is reported to manage chinch bugs, spider mites, aphids, leaf rollers, leaf miners, white flies, fungus gnats and scale bugs. AgCenter investigations of the elements of unroasted sesame seed oil towards Formosan termites confirmed that sesamol – a pure compound within the seeds – is an efficient repellent at low concentrations and stays energetic for a number of months. Sesamol is comparatively cheap and exhibits promise as a pure various pesticide.

Patchouli oil
Patchouli oil has a pleasant woody odor detectable in the event you rub the leaves between your fingers. Its heyday within the United States market was as a pure deodorant within the 1970s. The oil stays an vital pure materials within the perfumery and meals industries and has been utilized in Asia traditionally to repel garments moths and as a chilly treatment. Using gasoline chromatography, AgCenter scientists decided that the oil consists primarily of patchouli alcohol (40 p.c) and alpha-patchoulene (15 p.c). Treatments of meals sources with the oil or alcohol might dramatically cease termite feeding. The alcohol is about twice as efficient because the oil itself.

Naphthalene and 2-acetonaphthone
LSU AgCenter researchers found that prime ranges of naphthalene happen in Formosan subterranean termite nests. This led to the testing of a associated compound – 2-acetonaphthone – a pure oil of corn. The efficiency of 2-acetonaphthone on the Formosan termite was evaluated by way of topical utility, nochoice and selection handled filter paper assays, and in sand barrier assays. It proved extremely efficient within the topical utility assays and in a sand barrier at concentrations as little as eight elements per million. The sturdy repellency noticed at concentrations a lot decrease than another naturally occurring chemical substances has led to a patent submission by the AgCenter.

Ku Shen and termites
A member of the legume household referred to as sophora root or Ku Shen comprises alkaloids that possess broad organic exercise. This historic Chinese herb utilized in conventional medicines grows wild all through China in sandy areas, sunny meadows and hillsides. About two dozen alkaloids have been recognized in Ku Shen, with matrine and oxymatrine being the most important elements of the dried root. Tests with wooden handled with matrine and oxymatrine towards Formosan termites confirmed antifeedent, a chemical agent that causes an insect to cease consuming, and poisonous properties that stay efficient for a minimum of a yr.

Acknowledgments
Research related to these research wouldn’t have been accomplished with out the help of the next people: Sanaa A. Ibrahim, Huxin Fei, Savi Kambham, Poornima Jayasimha, Karen Nix, Betty Zhu, Feng Chen and Lara Maistrello.

Gregg Henderson, Paul Ok. Adams Professor, and Lixin Mao, Postdoctoral Researcher, Department of Entomology, LSU AgCenter, Baton Rouge, La., and Roger A. Laine, Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, LSU, Baton Rouge, La.

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